For the year ended 28 February 2022
Significant accounting policies
C&C Group plc (the ‘Company’) is a company incorporated and tax resident in Ireland. The Group’s financial statements for the year ended 28 February 2022 consolidate the individual financial statements of the Company and all subsidiary undertakings (together referred to as “the Group”) together with the Group’s share of the results and net assets of equity accounted investments for the year ended 28 February 2022.
The Company and Group financial statements, together the “financial statements”, were authorised for issue by the Directors on 17 May 2022.
The accounting policies applied in the preparation of the financial statements for the year ended 28 February 2022 are set out below. Except if mentioned otherwise these have been applied consistently for all periods presented in these financial statements and by all Group entities.
Statement of compliance
The Group financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as adopted by the EU and as applied in accordance with Companies Act 2014. The individual financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with Financial Reporting Standard 101 Reduced Disclosure Framework (FRS 101). In accordance with Section 304 of the Companies Act 2014, the Company is availing of the exemption from presenting its individual Income Statement to the Annual General Meeting and from filing it with the Registrar of Companies.
In these financial statements, the Company has applied the exemptions available under FRS 101 in respect of the following disclosures:
- A cash flow statement and related notes;
- Disclosures in respect of transactions with wholly owned subsidiaries;
- Disclosures in respect of capital management;
- The effects of new but not yet effective IFRSs; and
- Disclosures in respect of the compensation of Key Management Personnel.
As the financial statements of the Group include the equivalent disclosures, the Company has also taken exemptions under FRS 101 available in respect of the following disclosures:
- IFRS 2 Share-Based Payments in respect of Group equity settled share-based payments.
Changes in accounting policies and disclosures
IFRS as adopted by the EU applied by the Company and Group in the preparation of these financial statements are those that were effective for accounting periods ending on or before 28 February 2022. The IASB have issued the following standards, policies, interpretations and amendments which were effective for the Group for the first time in the year ended 28 February 2022:
Interest Rate Benchmark Reform – Phase 2 – Amendments to IFRS 9, IAS 39, IFRS 7, IFRS 4 and IFRS 16
The amendments provide temporary reliefs which address the financial reporting effects when an interbank offered rate (IBOR) is replaced with an alternative nearly risk-free interest rate (RFR). The amendments include the following practical expedients:
- A practical expedient to require contractual changes, or changes to cash flows that are directly required by the reform, to be treated as changes to a floating interest rate, equivalent to a movement in a market rate of interest.
- Permit changes required by IBOR reform to be made to hedge designations and hedge documentation without the hedging relationship being discontinued.
- Provide temporary relief to entities from having to meet the separately identifiable requirement when an RFR instrument is designated as a hedge of a risk component.
The Group has completed a review of the implications for the Group as a result of the move from LIBOR to SONIA, it has found that all contracts and agreements have been updated accordingly. As such the basis of interest calculations which previously referenced LIBOR will be correct from 1 January 2022 and no further work is required.
These amendments had no impact on the consolidated financial statements of the Group. The Group intends to use the practical expedients in future periods if they become applicable.
Covid-19-Related Rent Concessions beyond 30 June 2021 – Amendments to IFRS 16
On 28 May 2020, the IASB issued COVID-19 Related Rent Concessions - amendment to IFRS 16 Leases. The amendments provide relief to lessees from applying IFRS 16 guidance on lease modification accounting for rent concessions arising as a direct consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a practical expedient, a lessee may elect not to assess whether a COVID-19 related rent concession from a lessor is a lease modification. A lessee that makes this election accounts for any change in lease payments resulting from the COVID-19 related rent concession in the same way it would account for the change under IFRS 16 if the change were not a lease modification.
The amendment was intended to apply until 30 June 2021, but as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is continuing, on 31 March 2021, the IASB extended the period of application of the practical expedient to 30 June 2022. The amendment applies to annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 April 2021, however earlier application is permitted. This amendment had no material impact on the consolidated financial statements of the Group.
IFRS and IFRIC interpretations being adopted in subsequent years
A number of new standards, amendments to standards and interpretations are not yet effective for the year ended 28 February 2022 and have not been applied in preparing these consolidated financial statements.
These following new standards, amendments and interpretations are either not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements once applied or are still under assessment by the Group.
Accounting standard/interpretation (Effective date)
Reference to the Conceptual Framework – Amendments to IFRS 3 (1 January 2022)
- In May 2020, the IASB issued Amendments to IFRS 3 Business Combinations - Reference to the Conceptual Framework. The amendments are intended to replace a reference to the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements, issued in 1989, with a reference to the Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting issued in March 2018 without significantly changing its requirements. The IASB also added an exception to the recognition principle of IFRS 3 to avoid the issue of potential ‘day 2’ gains or losses arising for liabilities and contingent liabilities that would be within the scope of IAS 37 or IFRIC 21 Levies, if incurred separately. At the same time, the IASB decided to clarify existing guidance in IFRS 3 for contingent assets that would not be affected by replacing the reference to the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements.
The amendments are effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2022 and apply prospectively.
Property, Plant and Equipment: Proceeds before Intended Use – Amendments to IAS 16 (1 January 2022)
- In May 2020, the IASB issued Property, Plant and Equipment — Proceeds before Intended Use, which prohibits entities deducting from the cost of an item of property, plant and equipment, any proceeds from selling items produced while bringing that asset to the location and condition necessary for it to be capable of operating in the manner intended by management. Instead, an entity recognises the proceeds from selling such items, and the costs of producing those items, in profit or loss.
The amendment is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2022 and must be applied retrospectively to items of property, plant and equipment made available for use on or after the beginning of the earliest period presented when the entity first applies the amendment. The amendments are not expected to have a material impact on the Group.
Onerous Contracts – Costs of Fulfilling a Contract – Amendments to IAS 37 (1 January 2022)
- In May 2020, the IASB issued amendments to IAS 37 to specify which costs an entity needs to include when assessing whether a contract is onerous or loss-making. The amendments apply a “directly related cost approach”. The costs that relate directly to a contract to provide goods or services include both incremental costs and an allocation of costs directly related to contract activities. General and administrative costs do not relate directly to a contract and are excluded unless they are explicitly chargeable to the counterparty under the contract.
The amendments are effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2022. The Group will apply these amendments to contracts for which it has not yet fulfilled all its obligations at the beginning of the annual reporting period in which it first applies the amendments.
IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards – Subsidiary as a first-time adopter (1 January 2022)
- As part of its 2018-2020 annual improvements to IFRS standards process, the IASB issued an amendment to IFRS 1 First-time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards. The amendment permits a subsidiary that elects to apply paragraph D16(a) of IFRS 1 to measure cumulative translation differences using the amounts reported by the parent, based on the parent’s date of transition to IFRS. This amendment is also applied to an associate or joint venture that elects to apply paragraph D16(a) of IFRS 1.
The amendment is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2022 with earlier adoption permitted. The amendments are not expected to have a material impact on the Group.
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments – Fees in the ‘10 per cent’ test for derecognition of financial liabilities (1 January 2022)
- As part of its 2018-2020 annual improvements to IFRS standards process the IASB issued amendment to IFRS 9. The amendment clarifies the fees that an entity includes when assessing whether the terms of a new or modified financial liability are substantially different from the terms of the original financial liability. These fees include only those paid or received between the borrower and the lender, including fees paid or received by either the borrower or lender on the other’s behalf. An entity applies the amendment to financial liabilities that are modified or exchanged on or after the beginning of the annual reporting period in which the entity first applies the amendment.
The amendment is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2022 with earlier adoption permitted. The Group will apply the amendments to financial liabilities that are modified or exchanged on or after the beginning of the annual reporting period in which the entity first applies the amendment. The amendments are not expected to have a material impact on the Group.
IAS 41 Agriculture – Taxation in fair value measurements
- As part of its 2018-2020 annual improvements to IFRS standards process the IASB issued amendment to IAS 41 Agriculture. The amendment removes the requirement in paragraph 22 of IAS 41 that entities exclude cash flows for taxation when measuring the fair value of assets within the scope of IAS 41.
An entity applies the amendment prospectively to fair value measurements on or after the beginning of the first annual reporting period beginning on or after 1 January 2022 with earlier adoption permitted. The amendments are not expected to have a material impact on the Group.
Disclosure of Accounting Policies - Amendments to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements and IFRS Practice Statement (“PS”) 2 (1 January 2023)
- In February 2021, the IASB issued amendments to IAS 1 and IFRS Practice Statement 2 Making Materiality Judgements, in which it provides guidance and examples to help entities apply materiality judgements to accounting policy disclosures. The amendments aim to help entities provide accounting policy disclosures that are more useful by replacing the requirement for entities to disclose their ‘significant’ accounting policies with a requirement to disclose their ‘material’ accounting policies and adding guidance on how entities apply the concept of materiality in making decisions about accounting policy disclosures.
The amendments to IAS 1 are applicable for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2023 with earlier application permitted. Since the amendments to the Practice Statement 2 provide non-mandatory guidance on the application of the definition of material to accounting policy information, an effective date for these amendments is not necessary. The Group is currently assessing the impact of the amendments to determine the impact they will have on the Group’s accounting policy disclosures.
Definition of Accounting Estimates - Amendments to IAS 8 (1 January 2023)
- In February 2021, the IASB issued amendments to IAS 8, in which it introduces a definition of ‘accounting estimates’. The amendments clarify the distinction between changes in accounting estimates and changes in accounting policies and the correction of errors. Also, they clarify how entities use measurement techniques and inputs to develop accounting estimates.
The amendments are effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2023 and apply to changes in accounting policies and changes in accounting estimates that occur on or after the start of that period. Earlier application is permitted as long as this fact is disclosed. The amendments are not expected to have a material impact on the Group.
Amendments to IAS 1: Classification of Liabilities as Current or Non-current (1 January 2023)
- In January 2020, the IASB issued amendments to paragraphs 69 to 76 of IAS 1 to specify the requirements for classifying liabilities as current or non-current. The amendments clarify:
- What is meant by a right to defer settlement
- That a right to defer must exist at the end of the reporting period
- That classification is unaffected by the likelihood that an entity will exercise its deferral right
- That only if an embedded derivative in a convertible liability is itself an equity instrument would the terms of a liability not impact its classification.
The amendments are effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2023 and must be applied retrospectively. However in July 2021, IASB tentatively decided to defer the effective date of the amendments to no earlier than 1 January 2024. The amendments are currently under assessment but are not expected to have a material impact on the Group.
IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts (1 January 2023)
- In May 2017, the IASB issued IFRS 17. It is expected to be effective for reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2023, with presentation of comparative figures required.
The Group will be unaffected by this standard given it does not issue insurance contracts.
Deferred Tax related to Assets and Liabilities arising from a Single Transaction - Amendments to IAS 12
- In May 2021, the Board issued amendments to IAS 12, which narrow the scope of the initial recognition exception under IAS 12, so that it no longer applies to transactions that give rise to equal taxable and deductible temporary differences.
The amendments apply to changes in accounting policies and changes in accounting estimates that occur on or after the start of the effective date. Earlier application is permitted. The amendments are currently under assessment but are not expected to have a material impact on the Group.
Significant accounting policies
The significant accounting policies applied by the Group in the preparation of these financial statements are as follows:
Basis of preparation
The Group and the individual financial statements of the Company are prepared on the going concern and historical cost basis, except for, retirement benefits, the revaluation of certain items of property, plant & equipment, share-based payments at date of grant and derivative financial instruments. The accounting policies have been applied consistently by Group entities and for all periods presented.
The financial statements are presented in Euro millions to one decimal place.
(i) Going concern basis
The Directors have adopted the going concern basis in preparing the financial statements after assessing the Group’s principal risks including the risks associated with COVID-19.
Following the Rights Issue that the Group successfully completed in June 2021 in which the Group raised £151m (€176m) and as a consequence of COVID-19, the debt covenants for 31 August 2022 were renegotiated to increase the threshold of the Group's Net Debt/Adjusted EBITDA covenant to not exceed 4.5x and to reduce the Interest cover covenant to be not less than 2.5x. Restrictions including a minimum liquidity requirement of €150.0m each month and a monthly gross debt limit of €700.0m also apply. The Group is on track to meet these amended covenants, which end in August 2022 and revert to the traditional covenant metrics (Net Debt: Adjusted EBITDA not exceeding 3.5:1 and Interest Cover not less than 3.5:1) for its FY2023 full year results. In fact, the Group is back within its traditional covenant metrics as at 28 February 2022. However the restrictions will continue to apply until the Group demonstrates compliance with the traditional covenant metrics at its FY2023 full year results, unless it can show Net Debt: Adjusted EBITDA not exceeding 3:1 and Interest Cover not less than 4:1 for its FY2023 half year results, in which case the restrictions will end at that point.
The proceeds from the Rights Issue of £151m (€176m), coupled with a return to profitability and cash generation following the easing of government restrictions around COVID-19 in our core markets and disciplined balance sheet management has led to net debt excluding leases and liquidity of €191m and €439m respectively at year end compared with €362m and €315m respectively in FY2021. The Group delivered a leverage of 3.4x Net Debt/EBITDA as at 28 February 2022 and as previously noted is back within its traditional covenant metrics.
The Group returned to profitability in May 2021 following the easing of government restrictions around COVID-19 in our core markets, with trading ahead of plan. However, renewed Government restrictions on the hospitality industry around the key Christmas trading period adversely impacted performance. With the lifting once again of restrictions towards the latter stages of FY2022, the Group’s on-trade performance improved, providing a platform for a clean start to FY2023. Cost inflation pressures have grown over recent months and in response, the Group implemented a series of price increases which, alongside the previously announced €18.0m cost reduction programme and cost hedge positions taken, affords the Group a degree of protection from the inflationary environment as we enter into FY2023.
The Directors assessed the Group’s cash flow forecasts for the period ending 31 August 2023 (the going concern “assessment period”). The Cashflows included various stress testing scenarios around higher costs, an evolving inflationary environment and reduced volumes, in part associated with the impact of the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, but even at FY2022 profit levels, which were significantly curtailed as a consequence of the COVID-19 restrictions, the Group would have sufficient headroom to covenants. The Group's cash flow forecasts assume the continuation of trading over the assessment period with no lockdowns or the reintroduction of COVID-19 restrictions.
The headroom on the covenants within the financing facilities have been reviewed in detail by management and assessed by the Directors. Given the successful Rights Issue in June 2021, the return to profitability in the Group’s core markets, the price increases implemented, cost hedge positions taken and the disposal of the Group’s share of Admiral Taverns in FY2023; the Group's cashflow forecasts demonstrate significant headroom on the covenants within the financing facilities. Given the quantum of headroom, the Directors have concluded that the covenants will be satisfied and therefore consider it appropriate to adopt the going concern basis of accounting with no material uncertainties as to the Group’s ability to continue to do so.
Basis of consolidation
The Group’s financial statements consolidate the financial statements of the Company and all subsidiary undertakings together with the Group’s share of the results of equity accounted investments for the year ended 28 February 2022.
Subsidiaries are entities controlled by the Group. The Group controls an entity when it is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity. The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date on which control commences until the date on which control ceases.
On 30 April 2004, the Group, previously headed by C&C Group International Holdings Limited, underwent a reorganisation by virtue of which C&C Group International Holdings Limited’s shareholders in their entirety exchanged their shares for shares in C&C Group plc, a newly formed company, which then became the ultimate parent company of the Group. Notwithstanding the change in the legal parent of the Group, this transaction has been accounted for as a reverse acquisition and the consolidated financial statements are prepared on the basis of the new legal parent having been acquired by the existing Group except that the capital structure shown is that of the legal parent.
Non-controlling interests represents the portion of the equity of a subsidiary not attributable either directly or indirectly to the Parent Company and are presented separately in the Income Statement and within equity in the Balance Sheet distinguished from Parent Company shareholders’ equity, when relevant.
Acquisitions of non-controlling interests are accounted for as transactions with equity holders in their capacity as equity holders and therefore no goodwill is recognised as a result of such transactions. On an acquisition by acquisition basis, the Group recognises any non-controlling interest in the acquiree either at fair value or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the acquiree’s net assets. If the Group loses control over a subsidiary, it derecognises the related assets (including Goodwill), liabilities, non-controlling interest and other components of equity, while any resultant gain or loss is recognised in the Income Statement. Any investment retained is recognised at fair value.
(ii) Investments in associates and jointly controlled entities (equity accounted investments)
The Group’s interests in equity accounted investments comprise interests in associates and joint ventures. Associates are those entities in which the Group has significant influence, but not control or joint control, over the financial and operating policies. A joint venture is a type of joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the joint venture. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control of the arrangement, which exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require unanimous consent of the parties sharing control. The Group’s investments in its joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method from the date joint control is deemed to arise until the date on which joint control ceases to exist or when the interest becomes classified as an asset held for sale. The Income Statement reflects the Group’s share of profit after tax of the related joint ventures. Investments in joint ventures are carried in the Balance Sheet at cost, adjusted in respect of post-acquisition changes in the Group’s share of net assets, less any impairment in value. If necessary, impairment losses on the carrying amount of an investment are reported within the Group’s share of equity accounted investments results in the Income Statement.
Interests in associates are accounted for using the equity method. They are initially recognised at cost, which includes transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, the consolidated financial statements include the Group’s share of the profit or loss and Other Comprehensive Income of associates, until the date on which significant influence ceases. Dividends receivable from associates reduce the carrying amount of the investment.
(iii) Transactions eliminated on consolidation
All intercompany balances and transactions, including unrealised gains arising from inter-group transactions, have been eliminated in full. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same manner as unrealised gains except to the extent that they provide evidence of impairment.
Unrealised gains arising from transactions with equity accounted investments are eliminated against the investment to the extent of the Group’s interest in the investment.
(iv) Company Financial Statements
Investments in subsidiaries are carried at cost less provision for impairment. Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.
Property, plant and equipment (note 11)
Property (comprising freehold land & buildings) is recognised at estimated fair value with the changes in the value of the property reflected in Other Comprehensive Income in the case of a revaluation gain, to the extent it does not reverse previously recognised losses, or as an impairment loss in the Income Statement to the extent it does not reverse previously recognised revaluation gains. The fair value is based on estimated market value at the valuation date, being the estimated amount for which a property could be exchanged in an arm’s length transaction, to the extent that an active market exists. Such valuations are determined based on benchmarking against comparable transactions for similar properties in similar locations as those of the Group or on the use of valuation techniques including the use of market yields on comparable properties. If no active market exists or there are no other observable comparative transactions, the fair value may be determined using a valuation technique known as a Depreciated Replacement Cost approach.
Plant & machinery is carried at its revalued amount. In view of the specialised nature of the Group’s plant & machinery and the lack of comparable market-based evidence of a similar plant sold, upon which to base a market approach of fair value, the Group uses a Depreciated Replacement Cost approach to determine a fair value for such assets.
Depreciated Replacement Cost is assessed, firstly, by the identification of the gross replacement cost for each class of plant & machinery. A depreciation factor derived from both the physical and functional obsolescence of each class of asset, taking into account estimated residual values at the end of the life of each class of asset, is then applied to the gross replacement cost to determine the net replacement cost. An economic obsolescence factor, which is derived based on current and anticipated capacity or utilisation of each class of plant & machinery as a function of total available production capacity, is applied to determine the Depreciated Replacement Cost.
Motor vehicles & other equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses.
Cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. When parts of an item of property, plant & equipment have different useful lives, they are accounted for as separate items (major components) of property, plant & equipment. Subsequent costs are included in an asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Group.
Property, plant & equipment, other than freehold land and assets under construction, which are not depreciated, were depreciated using the following rates which are calculated to write-off the value of the asset, less the estimated salvage value of 5% for other plant & machinery and 15% for storage tanks, over its expected useful life:
Land & Buildings
Buildings – ROI, US, Portugal
2 - 6% straight-line
Buildings – UK
2 - 3% straight-line
Plant & Machinery
2 - 7% straight-line
Other plant & machinery
6 - 32% reducing balance
Motor vehicles & other equipment
Other equipment incl returnable bottles, cases and kegs
5 - 25% straight-line
Judgement is involved in the depreciation policy applied to certain fixed assets where there is considered to be a salvage value. The Group considers that such assets have a salvage value equal to 5% of cost for other plant & machinery and 15% for storage tanks, based on the expected scrap value of the associated assets. The salvage value and useful lives of property, plant & equipment are reviewed and adjusted if appropriate at each reporting date to take account of any changes that could affect prospective depreciation charges and asset carrying values. When determining useful economic lives, the principal factors the Group takes into account are the intensity at which the assets are expected to be used, expected requirements for the equipment and technological developments.
On disposal of property, plant & equipment, the cost or valuation and related accumulated depreciation and impairments are removed from the Balance Sheet and the net amount, less any proceeds, is taken to the Income Statement and any amounts included within the revaluation reserve transferred to the retained income reserve.
The carrying amounts of the Group’s property, plant & equipment are reviewed at each balance sheet date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. An impairment loss is recognised when the carrying amount of an asset or its cash-generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount (being the greater of fair value less costs to sell and value in use). Impairment losses are debited directly to equity under the heading of revaluation reserve to the extent of any credit balance existing in the revaluation reserve account in respect of that asset with the remaining balance recognised in the Income Statement.
Certain property, plant & equipment is remeasured to fair value at regular intervals. In these cases, the revaluation surplus is credited directly to Other Comprehensive Income and accumulated in equity under the heading of revaluation reserve, unless it reverses a revaluation decrease on the same asset previously recognised as an expense, where it is first credited to the Income Statement to the extent of the previous write down.
The Group enters into leases for a range of assets, principally relating to freehold land & buildings, plant & machinery and motor vehicles & other equipment. These leases have varying terms, renewal rights and escalation clauses.
A contract contains a lease if it is enforceable and conveys the right to control the use of a specified asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration, which is assessed at inception.
Group as a lessee
(i) Right-of-use assets
The Group recognises a right-of-use asset at the commencement date for contracts containing a lease. The commencement date is the date at which the asset is made available for use by the Group.
Right-of-use assets are measured at cost, less any accumulated depreciation and impairment losses, and adjusted for any remeasurement of lease liabilities. The cost of right-of-use assets includes the lease liability adjusted for any payments made at or before the commencement date, initial direct costs incurred, lease incentives received and an estimate of the cost to dismantle or restore the underlying asset or the site on which it is located at the end of the lease term. The right-of-use asset is depreciated over the lease term or, where a purchase option is reasonably certain to be exercised, over the useful economic life of the asset in line with depreciation rates for owned property, plant & equipment. The right-of-use asset is tested periodically for impairment if any impairment indicator is considered to exist.
(ii) Lease liabilities
At the commencement date of the lease, the Group recognises lease liabilities measured at the present value of lease payments to be made over the lease term. The commencement date is the date at which the asset is made available for use by the Group. Lease payments include fixed payments less any lease incentives receivable, variable payments that are dependent on a rate or index known at the commencement date, payments for an optional renewal period and purchase and termination option payments, if the Group is reasonably certain to exercise those options. Management applies judgement in determining whether it is reasonably certain that a renewal, termination or purchase option will be exercised.
The lease liability is initially measured at the present value of the future lease payments, discounted using the incremental borrowing rate or the interest rate implicit in the lease, if this is readily determinable, over the remaining lease term. Incremental borrowing rates are calculated using a portfolio approach, based on the risk profile of the entity holding the lease and the term and currency of the lease.
After initial recognition, the lease liability is measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. It is remeasured when there is a change in future lease payments or when the Group changes its assessment of whether it is reasonably certain to exercise an option within the contract. A corresponding adjustment is made to the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset.
The Group chooses whether or not to include certain non-lease components, such as maintenance costs, in the measurement of the right-of-use asset and lease liability on an underlying asset class as afforded by the practical expedients in the standard. Where the non-lease components are not included, the costs are separated from lease payments and are expensed as incurred.
(iii) Short-term leases and leases of low-value assets
The Group applies the short-term lease recognition exemption to its short-term leases (i.e. those leases that have a lease term of 12 months or less from the commencement date and do not contain a purchase option). It also applies the lease of low-value assets recognition exemption to leases where the underlying asset value is low. Lease payments on short-term leases and leases of low-value assets are recognised as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Business combinations (note 10)
Upon making any investment, the Group is required to determine whether any control exists and hence whether the business acquired is accounted for as a subsidiary. If control is not deemed to exist then the investment is accounted for as either a joint venture, associate or financial asset depending on the relevant agreement. This determination is made based on an assessment of the Group’s power to affect the activities of the investment and the extent to which it has exposure to variable returns and the ability to affect such returns. This assessment is based principally on shareholder agreements and representation of the Group on the investment’s management committee as well as any relevant other side agreements.
Where an investment is made to the extent that the Group is deemed to have control over the investee, the investment is accounted for as a business combination using the acquisition method. In applying the acquisition method, the Group determines the cost of acquisition, being the fair value of consideration transferred, and also determines the fair value of identifiable assets and liabilities acquired.
Where the consideration to be transferred is contingent on future events the consideration is initially recorded at fair value with any changes recognised in the Income Statement. The only exception to this is where the consideration transferred meets the definition of an equity instrument, in which case the consideration is not remeasured, and the settlement is accounted for within equity.
Goodwill is initially measured at cost, being the excess of the aggregate of the cost of acquisition, non-controlling interests and any previous interest held over the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed. If the fair value of the net assets acquired is in excess of the aggregate consideration transferred, the Group reassesses whether it has correctly identified all of the assets acquired and all of the liabilities assumed and reviews the procedures used to measure the amounts to be recognised at the acquisition date. If the reassessment still results in an excess of the fair value of net assets acquired over the aggregate consideration transferred, then the gain is recognised in the Income Statement immediately.
Goodwill (note 12)
As at the date of acquisition any goodwill acquired is allocated to each cash-generating unit (CGU) (which may comprise more than one cash-generating unit) expected to benefit from the combination’s synergies. Impairment is determined by assessing the recoverable amount of the CGU to which the goodwill relates. These CGUs represent the lowest level within the Group at which goodwill is monitored for internal management purposes.
Where goodwill forms part of a CGU and part of the operation within that unit is disposed of, the goodwill associated with the operation disposed of is included in the carrying amount of the operation when determining the gain or loss on disposal of the operation. Goodwill disposed of in this circumstance is measured on the basis of the relative values of the operation disposed of and the proportion of the business segment retained.
Goodwill relating to associates and joint ventures is included in the carrying amount of the investment and is neither amortised nor individually tested for impairment. Where indicators of impairment of an investment arise in accordance with the requirements of IAS 36, the carrying amount is tested for impairment by comparing its recoverable amount with its carrying amount.
Intangible assets (other than goodwill) (note 12)
An intangible asset, which is a non-monetary asset without a physical substance, is capitalised separately from goodwill as part of a business combination at cost (fair value at date of acquisition) to the extent that it is probable that the expected future economic benefits attributable to the asset will flow to the Group and that its fair value can be reliably measured. Acquired brands and other intangible assets are deemed to be identifiable and recognised when they are controlled through contractual or other legal rights, or are separable from the rest of the business, regardless of whether those rights are transferable or separable from the Group or from other rights and obligations.
Subsequent to initial recognition, intangible assets are carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and any accumulated impairment losses. The carrying values of intangible assets considered to have an indefinite useful economic life are reviewed for indicators of impairment regularly and are subject to impairment testing on an annual basis unless events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying values may not be recoverable and impairment testing is required earlier.
Software costs incurred with respect to new systems and costs incurred in acquiring software and licences that will contribute to future period financial benefits through revenue generation and/or cost reduction are capitalised. Costs capitalised include external direct costs of materials and service and direct payroll and payroll related costs of employees’ time spent on the development side of the project.
Cloud software license agreements to use cloud software are treated as service contracts and expensed in the Income Statement, unless the Group has both the contractual right to take possession of the software anytime without significant penalty, and the ability to run the software independently of the host vendor. In such cases, the license agreement is capitalised as software within intangible assets.
The amortisation charge on intangible assets considered to have finite lives is calculated to write-off the book value of the asset over its useful life on a straight-line basis on the assumption of zero residual value.
The useful lives of the Group’s intangible assets are as follows:
Trade relationship re Tennent’s acquisition
Trade relationship re Wallaces acquisition
Trade relationship re Gleeson acquisition
Trade relationship re Matthew Clark and Bibendum acquisition
Software and licence costs
5 - 8 years
Impairment of non-financial assets
Further disclosures relating to impairment of non-financial assets are also provided in the following notes:
- Goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives: Note 12
- Intangible assets: Note 12
- Property, plant and equipment: Note 11
- Investments in associates and joint ventures: Note 13
The Group assesses at each reporting date, whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, the Group estimates the asset’s recoverable amount. An asset’s recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s or CGU’s fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. The recoverable amount is determined for an individual asset, unless the asset does not generate cash inflows that are largely independent of those from other assets or groups of assets. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount.
In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs of disposal, recent market transactions are taken into account. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded companies or other available fair value indicators.
Impairment losses of continuing operations are recognised in the Income Statement in expense categories consistent with the function of the impaired asset, except for properties previously revalued with the revaluation taken to Other Comprehensive Income. For such properties, the impairment is recognised in Other Comprehensive Income up to the amount of any previous revaluation.
For assets excluding goodwill, an assessment is made at each reporting date to determine whether there is an indication that previously recognised impairment losses no longer exist or have decreased. If such indication exists, the Group estimates the asset’s or CGU’s recoverable amount. A previously recognised impairment loss is reversed only if there has been a change in the assumptions used to determine the asset’s recoverable amount since the last impairment loss was recognised. The reversal is limited so that the carrying amount of the asset does not exceed its recoverable amount, nor exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation, had no impairment loss been recognised for the asset in prior years. Such reversal is recognised in the Income Statement unless the asset is carried at a revalued amount, in which case, the reversal is treated as a revaluation increase.
Goodwill is subject to impairment testing on an annual basis and at any time during the year if an indicator of impairment is considered to exist. In the year in which a business combination is effected and where some or all of the goodwill allocated to a particular cash-generating unit arose in respect of that combination, the cash-generating unit is tested for impairment prior to the end of the relevant annual period. Where the carrying value exceeds the estimated recoverable amount (being the greater of the fair value less costs of disposal and value-in-use), an impairment loss is recognised by writing down goodwill to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. The recoverable amount of goodwill is determined by reference to the cash-generating unit to which the goodwill has been allocated. Impairment losses arising in respect of goodwill are not reversed once recognised.
Intangible assets with indefinite useful economic lives are reviewed for indicators of impairment regularly and are subject to impairment testing on an annual basis unless events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying values may not be recoverable and impairment testing is required earlier.
Retirement benefit obligations (note 23)
The Group operates a number of defined contribution and defined benefit pension schemes.
Obligations to the defined contribution pension schemes are recognised as an expense in the Income Statement as the related employee service is received. Under these schemes, the Group has no obligation, either legal or constructive, to pay further contributions in the event that the fund does not hold sufficient assets to meet its benefit commitments.
The liabilities and costs associated with the Group’s defined benefit pension schemes, all of which are funded and administered under trusts which are separate from the Group, are assessed on the basis of the projected unit credit method by professionally qualified actuaries and are arrived at using actuarial assumptions based on market expectations at the reporting date. The discount rates employed in determining the present value of the schemes’ liabilities are determined by reference to market yields, at the reporting date, on high-quality corporate bonds of a currency and term consistent with the currency and term of the associated post-employment benefit obligations. The fair value of scheme assets is based on market price information, measured at bid value for publicly quoted securities.
The resultant defined benefit pension net surplus or deficit is shown within either non-current assets or non-current liabilities on the face of the Balance Sheet and comprises the total for each plan of the present value of the defined benefit obligation less the fair value of plan assets out of which the obligations are to be settled directly. The assumptions (disclosed in note 23) underlying these valuations are updated at each reporting period date based on current economic conditions and expectations (discount rates, salary inflation and mortality rates) and reflect any changes to the terms and conditions of the post retirement pension plans. The deferred tax liabilities and assets arising on pension scheme surpluses and deficits are disclosed separately within deferred tax assets or liabilities, as appropriate.
When the benefits of a defined benefit scheme are improved, the portion of the increased benefit relating to the past service of employees is recognised as an expense immediately in the Income Statement.
The expected increase in the present value of scheme liabilities arising from employee service in the current period is recognised in arriving at operating profit or loss together with the net interest expense/(income) on the net defined benefit liability/(asset). Differences between the actual return on plan assets and the interest income, experience gains and losses on scheme liabilities, together with the effect of changes in the current or prior assumptions underlying the liabilities are recognised in Other Comprehensive Income. The amounts recognised in the Income Statement and Other Comprehensive Income and the valuation of the defined benefit pension net surplus or deficit are sensitive to the assumptions used.
The Company has no direct employees and is not the sponsoring employer for any of the Group’s defined benefit pension schemes.
Current income tax
Current tax expense represents the expected tax amount to be paid in respect of taxable income for the current year and is based on reported profit and the expected statutory tax rates, reliefs, and allowances applicable in the jurisdictions in which the Group operates. Current tax for the current and prior years, to the extent that it is unpaid, is recognised as a liability in the Balance Sheet.
Deferred tax is provided on the basis of the Balance Sheet liability method on all temporary differences at the reporting date. Temporary differences are defined as the difference between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are not subject to discounting and are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period in which the asset is recovered or the liability is settled based on tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognised for all temporary differences except where they arise from:
- The initial recognition of goodwill or an asset or a liability in a transaction that is not a business combination and affects neither the accounting profit or loss nor the taxable profit or loss at the time of the transaction, or,
- Taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries where the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference is subject to the Group’s control and it is probable that a reversal will not be recognised in the foreseeable future.
Deferred tax assets in respect of deductible temporary differences are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits or taxable temporary differences will be available against which to offset these items. The recognition or non-recognition of deferred tax assets as appropriate also requires judgement as it involves an assessment of the future recoverability of those assets. The recognition of deferred tax assets is based on management’s judgement and estimate of the most probable amount of future taxable profits and taking into consideration applicable tax legislation in the relevant jurisdiction. The carrying amounts of deferred tax assets are subject to review at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that future taxable profits are considered to be insufficient to allow all or part of the deferred tax asset to be utilised.
The Group offsets deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities only if it has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets and current tax liabilities and the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority on either the same taxable entity or different taxable entities which intend either to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis, or to realise the assets and settle the liabilities simultaneously, in each future period in which significant amounts of deferred tax liabilities or assets are expected to be settled or recovered.
Deferred tax and current tax are recognised as a component of the tax expense in the Income Statement except to the extent that they relate to items recognised directly in Other Comprehensive Income or equity (for example, certain derivative financial instruments and actuarial gains and losses on defined benefit pension schemes), in which case the related tax is also recognised in Other Comprehensive Income or equity.
Company financial assets
The change in legal parent of the Group on 30 April 2004, as disclosed in detail in that year’s annual report, was accounted for as a reverse acquisition. This transaction gave rise to a financial asset in the Company’s accounts, which relates to the fair value at that date of its investment in subsidiaries. Financial assets are reviewed for impairment if there are any indications that the carrying value may not be recoverable.
Share options granted to employees of subsidiary companies are accounted for as an increase in the carrying value of the investment in subsidiaries and the share-based payment reserve.
IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (IFRS 15) establishes a five-step model to account for revenue arising from contracts with customers. Under IFRS 15, revenue comprises an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for transferring goods or services to a customer, these are exclusive of value added tax, after allowing for discounts, rebates, allowances for customer loyalty and other pricing related allowances and incentives. Provision is made for returns where appropriate. The Group recognises revenue in the amount of the price expected to be received for goods and services supplied at a point in time or over time, as contractual performance obligations are fulfilled, and control of goods and services passes to the customer. Where revenue is earned over time as contractual performance obligations are satisfied, the percentage-of-completion method remains the primary method by which revenue recognition is measured.
The Group manufactures and distributes branded cider, beer, wine, spirits and soft drinks in which revenue is recognised at a point in time when control is deemed to pass to the customer upon leaving the Group’s premises or upon delivery to a customer depending on the terms of sale. Contracts do not contain multiple performance obligations (as defined by IFRS 15).
Across the Group, goods are often sold with discounts or rebates based on cumulative sales over a period. The variable consideration is only recognised when it is highly probable that it will not be subsequently reversed and is recognised using the most likely amount or expected value methods, depending on the individual contract terms. In the application of appropriate revenue recognition, judgement is exercised by management in the determination of the likelihood and quantum of such items based on experience and historical trading patterns.
The Group is deemed to be a principal to an arrangement when it controls a promised good or service before transferring them to a customer; and accordingly recognises the revenue on a gross basis. The Group is determined to be an agent to a transaction, in circumstances where the Group arranges for the provision of goods or services by another third party, based on the principal of control; the net amount retained after the deduction of any costs to the principal is recognised as revenue.
Excise duty is levied at the point of production in the case of the Group’s manufactured products and at the point of importation in the case of imported products in the relevant jurisdictions in which the Group operates. As the Group’s manufacturing and warehousing facilities are revenue approved and registered excise facilities, the excise duty liability generally crystallises on transfer of product from duty in suspense to duty paid status which normally coincides with the point of sale. The duty number disclosed represents the cash cost of duty paid on the Group’s products. Where goods are bought duty paid, and subsequently sold, the duty element is not included in the duty line within Net revenue but is included within the cost of goods sold.
Net revenue is defined by the Group as revenue less excise duty paid by the Group.
The Group has adopted an accounting policy and Income Statement format that seeks to highlight specific significant items of income and expense within the Group results for the year. The Directors believe this provides a more useful analysis. These significant items are determined based on the following qualitative and quantitative framework. The Group considers items which are significant either because of their size or their nature, and which are non-recurring.
For items to be considered significant, it must initially meet at least one of the following criteria:
- Non-recurring items – these are events/transactions that are infrequent and unusual, or one-off in nature. These include items such as restructuring and integration projects, litigation costs and settlements, impairment of assets, COVID-19, acquisition related costs, and gains/losses from the sale of assets or businesses.
- Inconsistent items – these are items which are inconsistent amounts year on year (where applicable) such as revaluation gains/losses.
- For an item to be deemed exceptional, it must have a significant effect on C&C’s profitability and should therefore be separately disclosed. For the purposes of FY2022 year-end, the Group determined a material amount that would influence the economic decisions of a user of the financial statements.
If an item meets at least one of the criteria, the Directors then exercise judgement evaluated based on the above criteria as to whether the item meets the Group definition of significant.
Finance income and expenses
Finance income comprises interest income on funds invested and any gains on hedging instruments that are recognised in the Income Statement. Interest income is recognised as it accrues in the Income Statement, using the effective interest method.
Finance expenses comprise interest expense on borrowings, interest expense on sale of trade receivables, bank guarantee fees, amortisation of borrowing issue costs, losses on hedging instruments that are recognised in the Income Statement, ineffective portion of changes in the fair value of cash flow hedges and unwinding the discount on provisions and leases. All borrowing costs are recognised in the Income Statement using the effective interest method.
Research and development
Expenditure on research that is not related to specific product development is recognised in the Income Statement as incurred.
Expenditure on the development of new or substantially improved products or processes is capitalised if the product or process is technically feasible and commercially viable.
Grants are recognised at their fair value when there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received, and all attaching conditions have been complied with.
Capital grants received and receivable by the Group are credited to government grants and are amortised to the Income Statement on a straight-line basis over the expected useful lives of the assets to which they relate.
Revenue grants are recognised as income over the periods necessary to match the grant on a systematic basis to the costs that it is intended to compensate.
Assets held for sale
Non-current assets, or disposal groups comprising of assets and liabilities, are classified as held-for-sale if it is highly probable that they will be recovered primarily through sale rather than through continuing use. Such assets, or disposal groups, are generally measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Any impairment loss on a disposal group is allocated first to goodwill, and then to the remaining assets and liabilities on a pro rata basis, except that no loss is allocated to inventories, financial assets, deferred tax assets or employee benefit assets, which continue to be measured in accordance with the Group’s other accounting policies as applicable.
Impairment losses on initial classification as held-for-sale and subsequent gains and losses on remeasurement are recognised in the Income Statement. Once classified as held-for-sale, intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are no longer amortised or depreciated, and any equity accounted investee is no longer equity accounted.
A discontinued operation is a component of the Group’s business, the operations and cash flows of which can be clearly distinguished from the rest of the Group and which; represents a separate major line of business or geographic area of operations; is part of a single co-ordinated plan to dispose of a separate major line of business or geographic area of operations; or is a subsidiary acquired exclusively with a view to resale.
Classification as a discontinued operation occurs at the earlier of disposal or when the operation meets the criteria to be classified as held-for-sale. When an operation is classified as a discontinued operation, the comparative Income Statement and Other Comprehensive Income is represented as if the operation had been discontinued from the start of the comparative year.
Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal organisational and management structure of the Group and the internal financial information provided to the Chief Operating Decision-Maker, the executive Directors, who are responsible for the allocation of resources and the monitoring and assessment of performance of each of the operating segments.
Following a business review and organisational structure change in FY2022, this has transitioned from four segment operating model (Ireland, Great Britain, Matthew Clark and Bibendum and International) to a two segment operating model. The Group has determined that its reportable segments are Ireland and Great Britain. The reportable segments reflect the way financial information is reviewed by the Group’s CODM.
The previous reportable segments, as disclosed in the Group’s FY2021 annual report have been realigned to follow the Group’s new operating segments and how the business will be managed internally going forward. The Group has restated the operating segment information for the year ended 28 February 2021 accordingly.
The analysis by segment includes both items directly attributable to a segment and those, including central overheads that are allocated on a reasonable basis to those segments in internal financial reporting packages.
For further information on operating segments see note 1.
Foreign currency translation
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (“the functional currency”). The consolidated financial statements are presented in Euro, which is the presentation currency of the Group and both the presentation and functional currency of the Company.
Transactions in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency of each entity at the foreign exchange rate ruling at the date of the transaction. Non-monetary assets carried at historic cost are not subsequently retranslated. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the reporting date are translated into functional currencies at the foreign exchange rate ruling at that date. Foreign exchange movements arising on translation are recognised in the Income Statement with the exception of all monetary items designated as a hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation, which are recognised in the consolidated financial statements in Other Comprehensive Income until the disposal of the net investment, at which time they are recognised in the Income Statement for the year.
The assets and liabilities of foreign operations, including goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on consolidation, are translated to Euro at the foreign exchange rates ruling at the reporting date. The revenues and expenses of foreign operations are translated to Euro at the average exchange rate for the financial period where that represents a reasonable approximation of actual rates. Foreign exchange movements arising on translation of the net investment in a foreign operation, including those arising on long-term intra-group loans for which settlement is neither planned nor likely to happen in the foreseeable future and as a consequence are deemed quasi equity in nature, are recognised directly in Other Comprehensive Income in the consolidated financial statements in the foreign currency translation reserve. The portion of exchange gains or losses on foreign currency borrowings or derivatives used to provide a hedge against a net investment in a foreign operation that is designated as a hedge of those investments, is recognised directly in Other Comprehensive Income to the extent that they are determined to be effective. The ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Income Statement for the year.
Any movements that have arisen since 1 March 2004, the date of transition to IFRS, are recognised in the currency translation reserve and are recycled through the Income Statement on disposal of the related business. Translation differences that arose before the date of transition to IFRS as adopted by the EU in respect of all non-Euro denominated operations are not presented separately.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost includes all expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories and bringing them to their present location and condition and is based on the first-in first-out principle.
In the case of finished goods and work in progress, cost includes direct production costs and the appropriate share of production overheads plus excise duties, where appropriate. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less estimated costs necessary to complete the sale.
Provision is made for slow-moving or obsolete stock where appropriate.
A provision is recognised in the Balance Sheet when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are measured at the Directors’ best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date and are discounted to present value at an appropriate rate if the effect of the time value of money is deemed material. The carrying amount of the provision increases in each period to reflect the passage of time and the unwinding of the discount. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised in the Income Statement within finance expense.
A contingent liability is not recognised but is disclosed where the existence of the obligation will only be confirmed by future events or where it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation or where the amount of the obligation cannot be measured with reasonable reliability. Contingent assets are not recognised but are disclosed where an inflow of economic benefits is probable. Provisions are not recognised for future operating losses; however, provisions are recognised for onerous contracts where the unavoidable cost exceeds the expected benefit.
Due to the inherent uncertainty with respect to such matters, the value of each provision is based on the best information available at the time, including advice obtained from third party experts, and is reviewed by the Directors on a periodic basis with the potential financial exposure reassessed. Revisions to the valuation of a provision are recognised in the period in which such a determination is made, and such revisions could have a material impact on the financial performance of the Group.
The Group operates a number of Share Option Schemes, Performance Share Plans and cash settled award schemes, listed below:
- Executive Share Option Scheme (the ‘ESOS’),
- Long-Term Incentive Plan (the ‘LTIP’),
- Recruitment and Retention Plan,
- Deferred Bonus Plan (‘DBP’), and
- Partnership and Matching Share Schemes.
Equity settled share-based payment transactions
Group share schemes allow certain employees to acquire shares in the Company. The fair value of share entitlements granted is recognised as an employee expense in the Income Statement with a corresponding increase in equity, while the cost of acquiring shares on the open market to satisfy the Group’s obligations under the Partnership and Matching Share Schemes is recognised in the Income Statement as incurred.
All awards are subject to non-market vesting conditions only, the details of which are set out in note 4.
The expense for the share entitlements shown in the Income Statement is based on the fair value of the total number of entitlements expected to vest and is allocated to accounting periods on a straight-line basis over the vesting period. The cumulative charge to the Income Statement at each reporting date reflects the extent to which the vesting period has expired and the Group’s best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. It is reversed only where entitlements do not vest because all non-market performance conditions have not been met or where an employee in receipt of share entitlements leaves the Group before the end of the vesting period and forfeits those options in consequence.
The proceeds received by the Company net of any directly attributable transaction costs on the vesting of share entitlements met by the issue of new shares are credited to share capital and share premium when the share entitlements are exercised. Amounts included in the share-based payments reserve are transferred to retained income when vested options are exercised, forfeited post-vesting or lapse.
The dilutive effect of outstanding options, to the extent that they are to be settled by the issue of new shares and to the extent that the vesting conditions would have been satisfied if the end of the reporting period was the end of the contingency period, is reflected as additional share dilution in the determination of diluted earnings per share.
Trade & other receivables
Trade receivables are initially recognised at fair value (which usually equals the original invoice value) and are subsequently measured at amortised cost less loss allowance for impairment losses. The Group applies the simplified approach permitted by IFRS 9 Financial Instruments to measure expected credit losses for trade receivables, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables. The carrying amount of these receivables approximates their fair value as these are short-term in nature; hence, the maximum exposure to credit risk at the reporting date is the carrying value of each class of receivable.
Trade receivables are derecognised when the rights to receive cash flows from the asset have expired or the Group has transferred its rights to receive cash flows from the asset or has assumed an obligation to pay the received cash flows in full without material delay to a third party under a ‘pass-through’ arrangement; and either (a) the Group has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, or (b) the Group has neither transferred nor retained substantially all the risks and rewards of the asset, but has transferred control of the asset.
Cash in the Balance Sheet comprises of cash at bank and in hand and short-term deposits with an original maturity of three months or less. Bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and form part of the Group’s cash management are included as a component of cash for the purpose of the statement of cash flows.
Advances to customers
Advances to customers, which can be categorised as either an advance of discount or a repayment/annuity loan conditional on the achievement of contractual sales targets, are initially recognised at fair value, amortised to the Income Statement (and classified within sales discounts as a reduction in revenue) over the relevant period to which the customer commitment is made, and subsequently carried at amortised cost less an impairment allowance. Where there is a volume target the amortisation of the advance is included in sales discounts as a reduction to revenue. Regarding advances to customers, the Group applies the general approach to measure expected credit losses which requires a loss provision to be recognised based on twelve month or lifetime expected credit losses, provided a significant increase in credit risk has occurred since initial recognition. The Group Credit Committee reviews debt collection trends and commercial market information to assess any significant change in credit risk.
Trade & other payables
Trade & other payables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method.
Interest-bearing loans & borrowings
Interest-bearing loans & borrowings are recognised initially at fair value less attributable transaction costs and are subsequently measured at amortised cost with any difference between the amount originally recognised and redemption value being recognised in the Income Statement over the period of the borrowings on an effective interest rate basis. Where the early refinancing of a loan results in a significant change in the present value of the expected cash flows, the original loan is derecognised and the replacement loan is recognised at fair value. The difference between the original loan and the fair value of the replacement loan is recognised in finance costs in the year.
Derivative financial instruments
Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date that a derivative contract is entered into, and they are subsequently remeasured to their fair value at the end of each reporting period. The accounting for subsequent changes in fair value depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument and, if so, the nature of the item being hedged. The Group designates certain derivatives as hedges of a particular risk associated with the cash flows of recognised assets and liabilities and highly probable forecast transactions (cash flow hedges). The gains or losses related to derivatives not used as effective hedging instruments are recognised in the Income Statement.
At inception of the hedge relationship, the Group documents the economic relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items, including whether changes in the cash flows of the hedging instruments are expected to offset changes in the cash flows of hedged items. The Group documents its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking its hedge transactions. The fair values of derivative financial instruments designated in hedge relationships are disclosed in note 24. Movements in the hedging reserve in shareholders’ equity are shown in note 24. The full fair value of a hedging derivative is classified as a non-current asset or liability when the remaining maturity of the hedged item is more than 12 months; it is classified as a current asset or liability when the remaining maturity of the hedged item is less than 12 months. The Group only trades derivatives for hedging activities. The Group documents its assessment, both at hedge inception and on an ongoing basis, of whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of hedged items.
Cash flow hedges that qualify for hedge accounting
The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in the cash flow hedge reserve within equity. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Income Statement as finance expenses.
The Group uses forward contracts to hedge forecast transactions, the Group generally designates the full change in fair value of the forward contract, i.e. the forward rate including forward points, as the hedging instrument. Gains or losses relating to the effective portion of the change in fair value of the entire forward contract are recognised in the cash flow hedge reserve within equity.
Amounts accumulated in equity are reclassified in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss. Where the hedged item subsequently results in the recognition of a non-financial asset (such as inventory), the deferred hedging gains and losses are included within the initial cost of the asset. The deferred amounts are ultimately recognised in profit or loss, since the hedged item affects profit or loss (for example, through operating costs).
When a hedging instrument expires, or is sold or terminated, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative deferred gain or loss in equity at that time remains in equity until the forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that were reported in equity are immediately reclassified to profit or loss.
Cash flow hedge reserve
The cash flow hedge reserve is used to recognise the effective portion of gains or losses on derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges, as described in note 24. Amounts are subsequently either transferred to the initial cost of inventory or reclassified to profit or loss as appropriate.
Net investment hedging
Any gain or loss on the effective portion of a hedge of a net investment in a foreign operation using a foreign currency denominated monetary liability is recognised in Other Comprehensive Income while the gain or loss on the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the Income Statement. Cumulative gains and losses remain in Other Comprehensive Income until disposal of the net investment in the foreign operation at which point the related differences are transferred to the Income Statement as part of the overall gain or loss on disposal.
Ordinary shares are classified as equity instruments. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issuance of new shares are shown in equity as a deduction from the gross proceeds.
Equity share capital issued under its Joint Share Ownership Plan, which is held in trust by an Employee Trust is classified as treasury shares on consolidation until such time as the Interests lapse and the shares are cancelled or disposed of by the Trust.
Own shares acquired under share buyback programme
The cost of ordinary shares purchased by a subsidiary of the Group on the open market is recorded as a deduction from equity on the face of the Group Balance Sheet. When these shares are cancelled, an amount equal to the nominal value of any shares cancelled is included within other undenominated capital fund and the cost is deducted from retained earnings.
Final dividends on ordinary shares are recognised as a liability in the financial statements only after they have been approved at an Annual General Meeting of the Company. Interim dividends on ordinary shares are recognised when they are paid.
Significant Judgements and Estimates
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with IFRS as adopted by the EU requires management to make certain estimates, assumptions and judgements that affect the application of accounting policies and the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, income and expenses. The significant judgements, estimates and assumptions used by management may differ from the actual outcome of the transaction and consequently the realised value of the associated assets and liabilities may vary. The Group has considered the impact of climate change on the consolidated financial statements, including the carrying value of assets, the useful economic life of assets, and provisions. The significant judgements and estimates which have been applied, and which are expected to have a material impact, are as follows:
The Group is subject to income tax in a number of jurisdictions, and judgement is required in determining the worldwide provision for taxes. There are many transactions and calculations during the ordinary course of business, for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain and the complexity of the tax treatment may be such that the final tax charge may not be determined until a formal resolution has been reached with the relevant tax authority which may take extended time periods to conclude. The ultimate tax charge may, therefore, be different from that which initially is reflected in the Group’s consolidated tax charge and provision and any such differences could have a material impact on the Group’s income tax charge and consequently financial performance. The determination of the provision for income tax is based on management’s understanding of the relevant tax law and judgement as to the appropriate tax charge, and management believe that all assumptions and estimates used are reasonable and reflective of the tax legislation in jurisdictions in which the Group operates. Where the final tax charge is different from the amounts that were initially recorded, such differences are recognised in the income tax provision in the period in which such determination is made.
Deferred tax assets in respect of deductible temporary differences are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits or taxable temporary differences will be available against which to offset these items. The recognition or non-recognition of deferred tax assets as appropriate also requires judgement as it involves an assessment of the future recoverability of those assets. The recognition of deferred tax assets is based on management’s judgement and estimate of the most probable amount of future taxable profits and taking into consideration applicable tax legislation in the relevant jurisdiction.
Valuation of property, plant and equipment
The Group values its freehold land & buildings and plant & machinery at market value/Depreciated Replacement Cost and consequently, carries out an annual valuation. The Group engages external valuers to value the Group’s property, plant & machinery at a minimum every three years or as at the date of acquisition for assets acquired as part of a business combination. An external valuation was conducted at 28 February 2022 by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP to value the freehold land & buildings and plant & machinery at the Group’s Clonmel (Tipperary), Wellpark (Glasgow) and Portugal sites.
The key assumptions used to determine the fair value of the freehold land & buildings and plant & machinery and sensitivity analyses are provided in note 11.
Sources of estimation uncertainty
Recoverable amount of goodwill
The impairment testing process requires management to make significant estimates regarding the future cash flows expected to be generated by cash-generating units to which goodwill has been allocated. Future cash flows relating to the eventual disposal of these cash-generating units and other factors may also be relevant to determine the fair value of goodwill. Management periodically evaluates and updates the estimates based on the conditions which influence these variables. The assumptions and conditions for determining impairments of goodwill reflect management’s best assumptions and estimates (discount rates, terminal growth rates, forecasted volume, net revenue, operating profit) but these items involve inherent uncertainties described above, many of which are not under management’s control. The Group also considered the potential impact of climate change. This is an area of estimation and judgement. As a result, the accounting for such items could result in different estimates or amounts if management used different assumptions or if different conditions occur in future accounting periods.
The inputs to the value in use calculations are disclosed in note 12.
Incremental borrowing rates on leases
Management use estimation in determining the incremental borrowing rates for leases which has a significant impact on the lease liabilities and right-of-use assets recognised. The incremental borrowing rates includes several key components such as, a reference rate (incorporating currency, economic environment and term of lease); a financing spread adjustment, an entity specific adjustment (if applicable) and a lease specific adjustment (if applicable, for example, a property lease compared to vehicle/other leases, and the term of the lease).
Please refer to note 19 for the carrying amounts of the right-of-use assets and the lease liability impacted.
Significant estimates are used in the determination of the pension obligation, the amounts recognised in the Income Statement and Statement of Other Comprehensive Income and the valuation of the defined benefit pension net surplus or deficit are sensitive to the assumptions used. The assumptions underlying the actuarial valuations (including discount rates, rates of increase in future compensation levels, mortality rates, salary and pension increases, future inflation rates and healthcare cost trends), from which the amounts recognised in the consolidated financial statements are determined, are updated annually based on current economic conditions and for any relevant changes to the terms and conditions of the pension and post-retirement plans. These assumptions can be affected by (i) the discount rate, changes in the rates of return on high-quality corporate bonds; (ii) for future compensation levels, future labour market conditions and (iii) for healthcare cost trend rates, the rate of medical cost inflation in the relevant regions. The weighted average actuarial assumptions used and sensitivity analysis in relation to the significant assumptions employed in the determination of pension and other post-retirement liabilities are contained in note 23 to the consolidated financial statements.
Whilst management believes that the assumptions used are appropriate, differences in actual experience or changes in assumptions may affect the obligations and expenses recognised in future accounting periods. The assets and liabilities of defined benefit pension schemes may exhibit significant period-on-period volatility attributable primarily to changes in bond yields and longevity. In addition to future service contributions, cash contributions may be required to remediate past service deficits. A sensitivity analysis of the change in these assumptions is provided in note 23.
Expected credit losses
The Group applies the simplified approach permitted by IFRS 9 Financial Instruments to measure expected credit losses for trade receivables, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables.
Further to the impact of COVID-19 on the Group, estimates have been made around the credit losses expected to be incurred on the Group’s financial assets – principally being trade receivables and trade loans. In determining the expected credit losses, the loss rates are determined based on the grouping of trade receivables sharing the same credit risk characteristics and past due days.
Regarding advances to customers, the Group applies the general approach to measure expected credit losses which requires a loss provision to be recognised based on twelve month or lifetime expected credit losses, provided a significant increase in credit risk has occurred since initial recognition.
Please refer to note 15 for the impact of the expected credit loss approach on the Group’s trade receivables and advances to customers.
Provision for obsolete stock
As a result of COVID-19, the Group has provided for obsolete inventory with respect to inventory which has no alternate use or right of return to the supplier and/or where inventory has become obsolete due to COVID-19 restrictions in the on-trade.
Please refer to note 14 for details in relation to the provision for obsolete stock.